Journal of Hydrometeorology | Tao et al. 
In the development of a satellite-based precipitation product, two important aspects are sufficient precipitation information in the satellite-input data and proper methodologies, which are used to extract such information and connect it to precipitation estimates. In this study, we explore the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art Deep Learning (DL) approaches to extract useful features from bispectral satellite information, infrared (IR), and Water Vapor (WV) channels, and to produce Rain/No-Rain (R/NR) detection. To verify the methodologies, two models are designed and evaluated: the first model, referred to as the DL-IR only method, applies deep learning approaches to the IR data only; the second model, referred to as the DL-IR+WV method, incorporates WV data to further improve the precipitation identification performance. The Radar Stage IV data are the reference data used as ground observation. The operational product, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), serves as a baseline model to compare the performances with. The experiments show significant improvement for both models in R/NR detection. The overall performance gains in the Critical Success Index (CSI) are 21.60% and 43.66% over the verification periods for the DL-IR only model and the DL-IR+WV model compared to PERSIANN-CCS, respectively. In particular, the performance gains in CSI are as high as 46.51% and 94.57% for the models for the winter season. Moreover, specific case studies show that the deep learning techniques and the WV channel information effectively help recover a large number of missing precipitation pixels under warm clouds while reducing false alarms under cold clouds.
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