Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Manola et al. 
In a warmer climate, it is expected that precipitation intensities will increase, and form a considerable risk of high impact of precipitation extremes. This study applies three methods to transform a historic extreme precipitation event in the Netherlands to a similar event in a future warmer climate, thus compiling a
future weather scenario. The first method uses an observation-based non-linear relation between the hourly observed summer precipitation and the antecedent dew-point temperature (the Pi-Td relation). The second method simulates the same event by using the convective-permitting NWP model Harmonie, for both present day and future warm conditions. The third method is similar to the first method, but applies a simple linear delta transformation to the historic data by using indicators from The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) ’14 climate scenarios. A comparison of the three methods shows comparable intensity changes, ranging from below the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling to a 3 times CC increase per degree of warming. In the NWP model, the position of the events is somewhat different, due to small wind and convection changes, the intensity changes somewhat differ with time, but the total spatial area covered by heavy precipitation does not change with the temperature increase.
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